What is fair trade?
You may have seen the term "fair trade" advertised on some products or by merchants and businesses. What does the certification mean and what's the relation to the environment?
Many workers around the world are treated and paid very poorly. Approximately 20% of the world's population exists on under a dollar a day; and around double that have incomes of under $2 a day. You might often wonder how some products you buy can be so cheap - underpaid workers toiling in sweatshops contributes to our "bargains", as do the environmentally destructive processes used to create some of the products we consume. That bargain may come at a very high price to our fellow man and the environment.
But these issues aren't confined to cheap items. Some of the world's biggest companies who place high price tags on goods utilize sweatshop labor - and the profits are incredible.
For example, a well known shoe company with products often retailing over $150 has been reported to pay their full time workers in India below the minimum family living wage in that country - less than $2 a day; including bonuses. The same company knowingly exposes workers to hazardous chemicals without appropriate protection - humans and the environment suffers as a result.
So unfortunately, price of an item doesn't necessarily indicate that workers involved in creating it, nor the environment is well treated.
Fair Trade movement history
In the middle of last century, some religious and non government organizations recognized these abuses and set about creating a fair trade market. The original products were mostly craftworks, but Fair Trade principles have been applied to a wide range of goods and services since - including coffee, textiles, tea and chocolate.
Fair Trade principles and certification
While ethical trade is part of the spirit of Fair Trade, they are two very different things. In order for a merchant to be able to authentically be able to claim Fair Trade status, the goods and services sold must:
a) Create opportunities for marginalized groups
b) Demonstrate transparent management and full accountability
c) Encourage the independence of producers
d) Pay the producer a fair price
e) Women workers must be properly valued and rewarded
f) Provide a safe and healthy working environment for producers
g) Demonstrate good environmental practices and responsible methods of production
h) Respect the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
i) Promote Fair Trade and educate others on the concept
The environmental standards are quite stringent, ensuring the minimum use and safe handling of agrochemicals, conservation of water, controls on gathering from the wild and deforestation, a ban on GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) crops and good soil management practices.
While not necessarily organic, Fair Trade items do foster good environmental stewardship. It's also important to know that not all organic goods are necessarily produced under fair trade conditions.
Fairtrade certification is designed to help consumers identify products which meet the above standards. In order for a product to display the International Fairtrade Certification Mark or the Fair Trade Certified Mark; it must undergo a rigorous auditing process. The auditing, certification process and management of the Fair Trade system is overseen by FLO International and FLO-CERT.
There are two internationally recognized marks
The mark on the left is the Fair Trade Organization (FTO) Mark. This identifies organizations that practice Fair Trade. The one on the right is the Fairtrade Label. It is used to identify Fair Trade products.
Coffee, humanity and the environment
In researching for this article I discovered a great deal about how my coffee and chocolate fixes affect the people and the environment that create them. For example, it's likely the farmer who grew the beans for my coffee was paid around 25c per pound of beans. Coffee beans in Australia sell anywhere between forty to eighty times that. I don't begrudge anyone making a profit, but the inequity in distribution of wealth really hit me.
It's also quite possible that child slave labor was used to give me my cup of joe. Part of the Amazon was likely destroyed and copious quantities of chemicals irresponsibly used that will create wider problems in that area. It upset me greatly knowing all this. I'd heard of these issues, but never really delved into them and it seems the problems are quite rampant. I had been always going to get around to switching to organic coffee permanently purely for environmental reasons; but learning all this really spurred me on to go beyond that and look towards fair trade coffee.
I've just placed my first ever order of Fair Trade coffee - and it really wasn't all that more expensive than my regular brand. I'm very much looking forward to my first guilt free caffeine hit from East Timor!
Fair trade items and cost
Fair Trade certified items do tend to cost a little more - but you can buy knowing that the people who created them were paid fairly and treated with respect, as was the environment in which they came from. If you find the costs a little steep to get everything you can from Fair Trade sources, perhaps even swapping one of your regular product purchases for a fair trade item? Every bit helps, especially when millions of people take the same step.
If you run a business and provide amenities such as coffee and tea for your staff, this would be a great change you can make, plus you'll raise awareness among your staff about fair trade issues!
Fair trade and big business
Aside from helping these farmers, artisans and the environment, purchasing fair trade items helps put pressure on other companies who don't engage fair trade principles to change their ways. I'll be writing to my regular supplier to tell them why I'll no longer be buying their product. A single email may not mean much to them, but what if thousands of others did too? At some stage, they would sit up and take notice - their continued viability depends upon it.
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